RENAISSANCE HUMANISM IN PRUSSIA: THE COURT OF THE GRANDMASTERS. William Urban, Monmouth College (Il). I. The Renaissance and Prussian. Die Liste von Reimen für den Begriff monm sind sowohl redaktionell gepflegt als auch automatisch generiert. Es kann also vorkommen, dass sich manche. Na MONM smo razpisali prosto mesto za opravljanje pripravništva! Vabljeni k prijavi.
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There was early burgage development along Monnow Street, and the suburb of Overmonnow , west of the river and protected by a defensive moat called the Clawdd-du or Black ditch, began to develop by the 12th century.
The cinders produced by the forges formed heaps, and were used in building foundations; the name of Cinderhill Street in Overmonnow dates from this period.
During the period of turmoil between the supporters of King Henry III and the barons who sought to curtail his power, the town was the scene of a major battle in , in which the king's forces were routed by the troops of Richard Marshal , Earl of Pembroke.
Later, the castle was extended by Henry's son Edmund Crouchback , after he became Earl of Lancaster in The bridge, now pedestrianised , remains in place today, the only such fortified bridge in Britain and reputedly one of only three similar crossings in Europe.
John of Gaunt strengthened the castle, adding the Great Hall, and the castle became a favourite residence of the House of Lancaster.
In , John of Gaunt's grandson was born to Mary de Bohun , in the Queen's Chamber within the gatehouse of Monmouth Castle, while his father Henry Bolingbroke was hunting in the area.
The boy was known as Henry of Monmouth before his coronation as Henry V ; supported by longbowmen from the area,  he won the Battle of Agincourt in Monmouth's links with Henry are commemorated in the naming of the main town square, Agincourt Square, and in the statue of Henry on the front of the Shire Hall.
From the 14th century onwards, the town became noted for the production of woollen Monmouth caps. A new shire was created covering the area west of Gloucestershire and Herefordshire , and Monmouth became its county town.
The town gained representation in the English Parliament at the same time, and its priory was dissolved.
In , James I granted Monmouth a town charter by letters patent. The granting of the charter included the charge that the town "at all perpetual future times Monnow Street is a typical market street, in being wide in the middle for those selling and narrow at each end, to help prevent livestock escaping.
Monmouth School was founded by William Jones in The castle changed hands three times during the English Civil War , and Oliver Cromwell passed through on his way to retaking Chepstow Castle and laying siege to Pembroke Castle in The Shire Hall was built in , and was used for the local Assizes , with the area beneath the building serving as the town market.
By the end of the 18th century, the town had become a popular centre for visitors undertaking the " Wye Tour ", an excursion by boat through the scenic Wye Valley taking in the picturesque sights of Ross-on-Wye, Goodrich , Tintern , Chepstow and elsewhere.
Turner , were among those who visited the area. The town was visited in by Admiral Horatio Nelson , who knew the importance of the area's woodland in providing timber for the British Navy and approved a Naval Temple built in his honour on the nearby Kymin Hill.
Priory Street , the town's first bypass, was built in the s, with the town slaughterhouse beneath. In , at Monmouth's Shire Hall, Chartist protesters John Frost , Zephaniah Williams and William Jones became the last men in Britain to be sentenced to be hanged, drawn and quartered after being found guilty of treason following riots in Newport that led to 20 deaths.
The sentences were later commuted to transportation to Van Diemen's Land. Until the establishment of an official police force in , Monmouth had a parish constable assisted by beadles to keep law and order.
Fuller is also recorded as having rescued people from drowning, acted as emergency midwife, and rescued a woman from a flooded house.
The types of crime that Fuller and subsequent police officers had to deal with in and around Monmouth as the century progressed were recorded in detail in the local newspapers, the Merlin and the Monmouthshire Beacon.
These crimes included theft of livestock, clothing, food, valuables, fuel wood and coal ; assault; vandalism; highway robbery; fraud; passing counterfeit coin; prostitution, and indecent exposure, as well as the more serious crimes of concealing the death of an infant, carnal knowledge without consent, and murder.
The constable would have been present in court at Shire Hall when many of these cases came before the Quarter Sessions or Assizes.
Once the court had passed sentence there was a wide range of punishment available to the authorities.
Capital offences were dealt with at Monmouth County Gaol , as were whippings and sentences of hard labour. Although a police force of four constables and a sergeant was established in Monmouth in , uncertain finances meant that within two years the force was reduced to just two constables.
All of these closed between and In a hydroelectric power station was built on the River Monnow at Osbaston, providing electrical power to the town until A new hydroelectric station was built on the same site and has operated since , typically generating ,kWh annually.
In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, Monmouth had close links with the Rolls family , who built a mansion at The Hendre just outside the town.
In , Charles Rolls established a new car making business with Henry Royce , but in he was killed in an aeroplane crash at the age of 32; he is commemorated by a statue in Agincourt Square.
Monmouth remained a relatively sedate and quiet small town for most of the 20th century; its passenger rail services ended in , but its road connections greatly improved with the new A40 bypassing the town in , and later connecting the town to the motorway system.
These improved communications contributed to the development of the town, with suburbs extending beyond the rivers Wye and Monnow to the south-east, west and north of the old town centre.
Monmouth is in an area of Devonian old red sandstone , at the point where the River Wye is joined by its tributary, the River Monnow , and immediately north of the point at which the smaller River Trothy flows into the Wye from the west.
Immediately to the south, the Wye enters a valley, incised into sandstone and, in particular, carboniferous limestone. In climatic terms, the town is located between those areas around the Severn Estuary which show a maritime influence, and the cooler and drier conditions of the English Midlands further inland.
Since , the A40 dual carriageway road runs past Monmouth linking with the M50 motorway at Ross-on-Wye.
It follows the River Wye valley from the northeast of Monmouth. Monmouth has been without passenger rail services since January ; goods trains ran until This operated for many years as Monmouth Sawmills and Gas Works after its closure as part of the rail network.
Monmouth is administered by Monmouthshire County Council , one of the 22 unitary local authorities in Wales formed in Its offices were located until at the former Gwent County Hall at Croesyceiliog , Cwmbran ; most staff are now in offices at Usk and Magor.
The town elects four county councillors, for the wards of Dixton with Osbaston , Drybridge , Overmonnow, and Wyesham; currently, two councillors are independent and two are Conservatives.
Monmouth had a mayor and burgesses in medieval times, and the town gained its first charter, from Henry VI , in In that corporation was abolished, and the town became part of the much larger Monmouth District becoming Monmouth Borough in , which until formed one of the five districts of Gwent.
The town was first represented in Parliament in , when it was allocated one seat and the shire two further seats.
The Representation of the People Act led to Newport becoming a parliamentary borough in its own right, and Monmouth was included in the new Monmouth county constituency.
The town has remained part of the Monmouth constituency in subsequent elections, although the constituency boundary has changed several times.
The constituency has returned a Conservative MP at most recent elections; the current member is David Davies , first elected in The Laws in Wales Acts created an anomaly in that, although Monmouthshire was noted as being in the 'Country or Dominion of Wales', it was made directly responsible to the courts of Westminster rather than falling under the Court of Great Sessions in Wales.
Ecclesiastically, until the town of Monmouth fell within the diocese of Hereford , rather than that of Llandaff. Monmouth developed primarily as a market town, and agricultural centre, rather than as a centre of industry.
The wool industry was important in its early growth, and the town was a centre for the production of the very popular knitted and felted Monmouth caps , from the 15th century onwards.
The town was also an important river port, with warehouses and wharves along the Wye later removed for the building of the A40 relief road.
Monmouth is now primarily a centre for service industries and tourism , and its good road communications have encouraged commuting to larger centres in the West Midlands , South Wales , and Bristol.
The town has a variety of both national and independent shops, most situated along Monnow Street. There are a number of supermarkets, a range of banks and many independent cafes and restaurants.
Church Street , a cobbled pedestrianised street, contains craft shops, a book shop, a traditional greengrocer, chemist, coffee shops and restaurants.
According to the census,  Monmouth had relatively high proportions of its population working in the retail and wholesale sectors of the economy The proportion working in manufacturing was lower than the average In terms of occupational groups,  the proportion of residents in managerial and professional posts was higher than average The usual resident population in the census was 8, The town is served by Monmouth Comprehensive School which had over 1, pupils in The Monmouth Schools is a "family" of 5 boarding and day schools.
There is a pre-prep school for boys and girls aged 3—7, two schools for boys a prep school for junior boys aged 7—11, and a senior school for boys aged 11—18 and two schools for girls a prep school for junior girls aged 7—11, and a senior school for girls aged 11— In the census, Minority religions included Muslim 0.
Monmouth contains churches of several denominations. It fell into ruin after the Dissolution of the Monasteries in , but was rebuilt as a parish church in , and then completely rebuilt again in The church spire is prominent in views of, and within, the town.
The churches at Wyesham and Dixton , though within the boundaries of Wales, are administered by the Church of England , and fall within the Diocese of Hereford.
St Mary's Roman Catholic Church was the first Catholic church to be built in Wales after the Reformation , and its construction followed the relaxation of laws against Catholics in The building was extended on several occasions in the 19th century.
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